Seedling cotyledons are unequally oval with a distinct notch at the tip. First true leaves are opposite, irregularly lobed, have long petiole, and toothed margin while subsequent leaves are alternate in a basal rosette.
Leaves of mature plants are obovate, pinnately lobed with toothed margins, alternate above, and form a basal rosette. Lower leaves have toothed. As the plant matures, basal leaves do not persist, and upper leaves get narrower or linear, toothed, and stalkless.
Stem is erect, smooth to scantily hairy, and 1 to 3 feet tall.
Flowers are small, white, and arranged in a cluster. Seedpods on long stalks are round and flat, taste like pepper.
Root is fibrous from a slender taproot.
Propagation is by seed.