ADULT: Egg parasitoids are often very tiny (1/16 in.).  Parasitic wasps attacking moth larvae are usually much longer in the range of 1/4 to 1 in. and usually with an ovipositor protruding from beneath the females' abdomen. Wings are usually clear with only a few closed cells and not extending past end of abdomen.  Bodies of the larger species are often brightly colored with white, yellow or red bands on legs, thorax or abdomen.

EGG: Female wasps deposit eggs into host or under some sedentary hosts.

LARVA: White to gray legless grub-like larvae feed within hosts, ultimately killing them.

PUPA: Larvae pupate within host (usually egg and aphid parasitoids) or exit host to spin cocoon on larvae or on leaf near dead host.

GENERATION TIME: Variable depending on host ranging from 2.5 to 3.5 wk.

HABITS: Solitary, mostly small, very active wasps search for their hosts, deposit eggs and abandon their progeny to fend for themselves. Armyworm and earworm larvae are often parasitized, particularly early in the season or in fields using selective pesticides.